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Named reactions

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Protecting Groups

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Penitrem D

Chemical structure of Penitrem_D
C37H45NO4
Author Amos B. Smith, III
Publication year 2003
Synthesis type Total synthesis
Number of steps 56 (3 parts)
References

Browse hundreds of other total syntheses.

Part 1 of 3
Chemical structure
Methyl acrylate
CH2Cl2
0 °C, 8.5 h

The product depicted is the major component of an uncharacterized mixture of isomers.
Chemical structure
HC(OMe)3, Amberlyst ® 15
0 °C, 2.5 h

The product depicted is the major component of an uncharacterized mixture of isomers.
Chemical structure
MeMgBr
PhH, Et2O
0 °C to RT, 90 min

See the Grignard Reaction
The product depicted is the major component of an uncharacterized mixture of isomers.
Chemical structure
Pyr.TsOH
Acetone
RT, 2.5 h, 49% (4 steps)
Chemical structure
MeOCH2Cl, i-Pr2NEt
CH2Cl2
0 °C to RT, 74 h
Chemical structure
NaH, HCO2Et
THF
0 °C to RT, 3 h

See the Claisen Condensation
Chemical structure
Ethyl vinyl ketone
Et3N
0 °C to RT, 7 h

See the Robinson Annulation
Chemical structure
KOH
MeOH, H2O
Reflux, 71% (4 steps)
Chemical structure
NH2OH.HCl, NaOAc
MeOH
Reflux, 3 h, 83%
Chemical structure
Bz2O
110 °C, 4.5 h

See the Semmler-Wolff Reaction
Chemical structure
NaOH
EtOH, H2O
Reflux, ON, 67% (2 steps)
Chemical structure
H2, Pd(OH)2/C
1 atm
EtOH, MeOH, i-PrOH
RT, 48 h, 96%
Chemical structure
TBSCl, i-Pr2NEt, DMAP
CH2Cl2
0 °C to RT, 3 h, 88%

The following protection / deprotection sequence was due to a late deviation from the initial plan.
Chemical structure
HCl
MeOH, H2O
RT, 3 h, 89%
Chemical structure
TIPSCl, DMAP
Et3N
RT, 25 h, 95%
Chemical structure
TMSCl, DMAP
THF, Et3N
RT, 48 h, 48%

The yield was 100% brsm.
Chemical structure

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Part 2 of 3
Chemical structure
  1. MeLi, CuI
  2. TMSCl
Et2O, Et3N
0 °C to RT, 3.5 h, 80%

See the Michael Addition
Chemical structure
  1. O2, Rose Bengal
  2. Ph3P
THF
-78 °C to RT, 24 h, 50%
Chemical structure
  1. VinylMgBr, CuI, (CH2NMe2)2
  2. TMSCl
THF, Et3N
90%

See the Michael Addition
Chemical structure + Chemical structure
MeLi, MgBr2.OEt2
Et2O
-5 °C to RT, 70 min, 65%

See the Aldol Addition
Chemical structure
Reagent structure
PhH
Reflux, 60 min, 79%

Selectivity : 75:25
See the Burgess Dehydration
Chemical structure
MeI, KOt-Bu, Ph2SO
THF
0 °C to RT, 4 h, 59%
Chemical structure
Pyr.TsOH
Acetone, H2O
RT, 24 h, 98%
Chemical structure
Zn, NiCl2.6H2O
Ultrasound
2-Methoxyethanol, Buffer (pH = 9)
RT, 27 h, 90%
Chemical structure
  1. O3
  2. Me2S
CH2Cl2, MeOH
-78 °C to RT, ON, 86%

R = Bn, Bz (mixture)
Chemical structure
KMnO4, NaH2PO4
t-BuOH, H2O
RT, 90 min

R = Bn, Bz (mixture)
Chemical structure
CH2N2
Et2O, CH2Cl2
RT, 92% (2 steps)

Selectivity : 89:11
R = Bn, Bz (mixture)
Chemical structure
H2, Pd(OH)2
1 atm
EtOH, H2O
RT, 24 h, 92%

R = Bn, Bz (mixture); R = H, Bz (mixture)
Chemical structure
KOt-Bu
MeOH
Reflux, 3 h, 86%

R = H, Bz (mixture)
Chemical structure
KOt-Bu
THF
Reflux, 6 h, 75%

See the Aldol Condensation
Chemical structure
Neopentyl glycol, Camphorsulfonic acid
Dean-Stark
PhH
Reflux, 6 h, 96%
Chemical structure
i-Bu2AlH
CH2Cl2
-78 °C, 20 min, 83%
Chemical structure
HCl
MeOH
0 °C to RT, 2 h, 96%

Selectivity : 55:45 S/R
Both C1-epimers were separated and the following steps were carried in separate vessels.
Chemical structure
Me2NNH2, AcOH, MgSO4
PhH
RT, 2 h, 94% / 91 %

Mixture of E and Z hydrazones.
Chemical structure + Chemical structure
Reagent structure
i-Pr2NLi
THF
-78 to 65 °C, 5.5 h
Chemical structure
BzCl, DMAP
CH2Cl2
RT, 18 h, 76% / 60 % (2 steps)
Chemical structure
AcOH, NaOAc
PhH
65 °C, 14 h, 53% / 56 %
Chemical structure
HClO4
MeCN, H2O
55 °C, 2 h, 90% / 74 %
Chemical structure
H2Cr2O7.2Pyr
CH2Cl2
RT, 5 h, 78%
Chemical structure
TfOH, Et3SiH
PhMe
-40 °C to RT, 90 min, 60%
Chemical structure
K2CO3
MeOH, H2O
55 °C, 15 h
Chemical structure
EDC, DMAP
CH2Cl2
RT, 60 min, 90% (2 steps)
Chemical structure
Dess-Martin Periodinane
CH2Cl2
RT, 3 h, 90%

See the Dess-Martin Oxidation
Chemical structure
O2, SiO2
1 atm
EtOAc
RT, 40 h, 72%
Chemical structure
Ph3P
PhH
RT, 60 min, 93%
Chemical structure
Li(s-Bu)3BH
THF
-78 °C, 20 min
Chemical structure
TESOTf, 2,6-Lutidine
CH2Cl2
RT, 60 min, 72% (2 steps)
Chemical structure

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Part 3 of 3
Chemical structure
+
Chemical structure
  1. n-BuLi
  2. TMSCl
  3. s-BuLi
THF, Et2O
-78 to 0 °C, 2 h, 62%

See the Madelung Indole Synthesis
Chemical structure
Pyr.SO3, Et3N
DMSO
RT, 30 min, 85%

See the Parikh-Doering Oxidation
Chemical structure
HCl
THF, H2O
RT, 60 min, 89%
Chemical structure
Sc(OTf)3
PhH
RT, 60 min, 62%
Chemical structure
Ac2O, DMAP
CH2Cl2, Et3N
RT, 60 min, 80%
Chemical structure
n-Bu4N+ F-
THF
RT, 30 min, 84%
Chemical structure
o-NO2PhSeCN, n-Bu3P
THF
RT, 15 min, 81%
Chemical structure
mCPBA, NaHCO3
CH2Cl2
RT, 18 h, 84%

See the Grieco Dehydration
Chemical structure
K2CO3
MeOH
RT, 4 h, 82%
Chemical structure

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